All that we see in smart devices of complex physical parts (Hardware) are not stand-alone, and they will be just inanimate and useless pieces without a large group of software that controls them and organizes their work accurately, and gives them this intelligence to perform difficult complex tasks.
The software that controls all the hardware of a smart device is called the operating system (OS). So, what is the operating system? And What is the most popular or the best operating system? This is what we will find out in this article.
What is Operating System (OS)
The operating system is the most important program in a computer or phone, and it is a link between the device and the user, and it is the controller of all the hardware and software parts of the computer, and it is the coordinator among them. In addition to being responsible for organizing and executing tasks and helping the user to make use of software, equipment, and others.
The best operating system
The operating systems are many and varied, and there are many companies that have their own operating system only, and users cannot try it. Therefore, in this article, we will review the most famous and the best operating systems that are available in the market, and all users can buy and try them, the most important of which are:
1. DOS OS
It is one of the best operating systems. The DOS operating system was first released by IBM in 1981 by programmer Tim Paterson, and DOS OS is one of the first generation operating systems. The process of saving in it is through floppy disks and commands are entered into it by writing. It is free and light that can manage files easily and quickly, but it has a certain limit in RAM, which is only 640 MB.
DOS operating system is divided into small programs, each of which performs a specific task inside the computer, and the commands in it are divided into two parts, internal commands that are executed in memory and do not need a disk to execute them. and external commands that cannot be stored in RAM and can only be executed with a disk.
- IO.SYS: It is responsible for the input and output operations in the computer, it contains text commands stored on it before to be executed at specific times, and this component is not visible to the user and cannot be accessed.
- MS-DOS.SYS: This component contains a set of several programs, each of which has an important role in the operations of the computer. The advantage of this component is that it extends to other programs that are installed, that is, it is not limited to the basic programs in the computer. It is also hidden from the user and cannot be accessed.
- DBLSPACE.BIN: This component is responsible for storing if the hard disk becomes full; Where the user can, in the event of such a problem, go to this component to compress the hard disk, so the operating system stores the disk inside this component to increase the hard disk space. The user can restore the data stored within the component when he wants to decompress, and this component is visible to the user and can access it.
- COMMAND.COM: The tasks of this component consist of two parts. The first is automatic and works without interference, which are pre-stored commands such as adjusting the time and date when the computer is turned on. As for the second part, it is manually accessed by the user. After accessing the component, he can write commands that perform certain tasks he wants.
2. Windows OS
At the present time, Windows is considered the best operating system on the computer (PC , Laptop) and the most widely used in the world. developed by Microsoft, where the first version of Windows OS was released in 1985. And Windows was an incomplete operating system because it was an extension of Microsoft’s MS-DOS operating system, and Microsoft developed it until it became one of the most common systems in the world and then released many other versions later. Its main objective was to fully control all computer interfaces needed for manual entry.
Among the advantages of the Windows operating system is its ease of use, simplicity, high productivity, and video playback feature, and it is the best operating system for games. Windows Microsoft also has an automatic software update feature.
- Kernel: It is the heart of the computer’s operating system, and it is the first program that is loaded after the boot process. Its functions include controlling the input and output processes, system call requests, memory management, and others.
- Drivers: It is a component of the windows operating system as it is a link between the device and the operating system. In other words, it is the software that allows the operating system to initiate and control the use of the device.
- Memory management: It is an important component of the windows operating system. It means managing memory or controlling the computer’s memory, and optimizing it to take advantage of all its parts to run the largest possible number of programs in the computer.
- Interrupts: Also an important component of the Windows operating system that sends a notification or alert indicating that there is an emergency in priority that needs attention. It interrupts the current program you are using and you can continue when the interruption ends.
- Security: It is an essential and important component of the operating system and its task is to maintain the safety of the computer and the operating system from viruses, and to determine the space that other users can access.
- Virtual memory: It is an important part in the windows operating system and in most operating systems, and virtual memory is located in a specific part of the hard disk. If the RAM memory is full, the computer releases a portion of the RAM memory and copies it to the hard disk.
- User Interface: The user interface is the window of the operating system that enables the user to control the computer, perform activities inside it, and issue commands. The interface of the Windows OS is a graphical interface that uses images and icons for controls and pop-up menus, as well as texts to clarify and direct the user, such as clicking the mouse to issue commands, and others.
- Multitasking: The windows operating system works in a multitasking manner, meaning that the processor in the computer runs several programs at the same time by dividing the work of the processor among the programs. Where the processor pauses programs and runs and processes one program and then pauses it and moves to another program, and this process takes place so quickly that the user does not notice.
- Disk and File Systems: The job of this component is to organize and arrange data and then store it in the storage spaces of various devices.
- Networks: A system that connects two or more devices in order to transfer or exchange data between them through a communication system technology. There are types of these networks, which are LAN, which connects nearby devices, and WAN, which connects remote devices. And there are Personal Networks (PAN) that connect very close devices.
3. Linux OS
One of the best operating systems for programmers and for cyber security. Linux OS is almost similar to the Windows OS but it is an open-source and means that it is easy to modify, and no particular company owns or developed it, but rather it is developed in cooperation between several companies.
One of its advantages is that it is best free operating system, its installation is easy, Linux OS is considered the best operating system safe because it is difficult to penetrate and transmit viruses to it. Because it is open source, there are many companies that build their system based on Linux, such as Solaris OS.
- Kernel: It is the most important component of the operating system. One of its functions in the Linux operating system is to control the units of the physical parts of the computer such as the screen and keyboard, in addition to transferring information or data from the hard disk to programs, and executing the commands that the user enters.
- Operating system or shell: It is one of the components of the Linux operating system and is a link between the kernel and the programs by writing the user programs that he wants to communicate with the kernel because the Linux OS is open source as explained previously.
- Environments and windows: It are the third component of the operating system, and it is an interface from which programs or icons emerge, as in the Windows operating system, that is, it is also a graphical interface. The Linux operating system interface is characterized by the presence of many forms for it that the user can choose from.
- Applications: Like any other operating system, the Linux operating system contains a wide range of basic applications that appear automatically after installing. What distinguishes this component in the Linux OS is that the user can choose among the basic applications, the applications he wants to have on the computer.
- Distributions: It is the last component in Linux OS and contains all the components of the operating system. There are several distributions that the user can choose from to be able to access the rest of the components, such as Ubuntu and Fedora.
4. Mac OS
One of the best operating systems for Apple devices only. It is released in 1984 by the American Mac company and then acquired by Apple in 1999 and dedicated to the development of Macintosh devices. One of its features is that it is easy and has a simple interface. Mac OS contains a feature of recording screen activities, and macOS contains predictive text while typing. Supports multiple languages any language that can be used for writing scripts, Mac OS is also secure and gets continuous updates and developments, so many Apple fans consider it the best operating system.
One of its drawbacks is that it is not free and expensive, many games are not available on it, and the number of programs that can be used is limited.
5. Android OS
One of the best operating systems for mobile devices. Android OS is a very popular free system developed by Silicon Vally and then acquired by Google in 2008. It is an open source designed for tablets and smartphones and has many advantages, including containing a large number of applications that the user can download through the Google Store or from external stores. It also contains auxiliary applications such as memos, calendar, calculator, etc., in addition to continuous updates of the system and applications. It also features a large memory which can also be expanded. Android OS is also considered the best operating system on cheap phones, and no one can compete with it.
6. iOS (iPhone OS)
It is the second largest operating system in the world after the Android operating system that works on smartphones, tablets, desktops, and mobiles. And the way it works is similar to the Android OS and Mac operating systems, except that it is not open source, and It is a closed system that does not support the installation of external applications, so it is safe and because of this feature, some may consider it the best operating system, but some consider it the worst.
iOS operating system is secure with many advantages, including containing a large number of applications amounting to 1.2 million or more. One of its famous features is the high quality of its images captured with devices that work with this system.
7. Chrome OS
It is the latest in the list of the best operating system. Chrome OS is an operating system developed by Google that is based on the Linux kernel, in addition to being free and open-source. It has a desktop interface similar to that of Windows OS. One of its advantages is that it is easy to use and simple, and it is basically a web browser through which you can browse social networking sites, watch videos, and more. Chrome OS also features a free storage space of 100 Gigabytes, in addition, to support Android applications.
This was a review of the most popular and the best operating systems list used in the various devices currently available in the market. Each system has its own features that make it suitable for a specific type of device and to perform specific tasks for users. Therefore, you have to choose the best operating system (OS) suitable for you based on the type of tasks that you will perform first and the type of device you prefer the second.